Kolasib is a newly created district and is located on the northern tip of Mizoram sharing its northern border with Cachar District of the State of Assam. The District was created in the year 1998 by carving out of the then Aizawl District. In fact, the district was created simply by upgrading the existing sub-division under Aizawl District vide Government Notification No. A.60011/21/95-GAD dated 29.07.1998. Two Rural Development Blocks namely N. Thingdawl and Tlangnuam (part) cover the whole district. At a later stage the district was
further subdivided into the following three sub-divisions :
- Vairengte Sub-Division with Headquarters at Vairengte.
- Kawnpui Sub-division with Headquarters at Kawnpui.
- Kolasib Sadar Sub-division with Headquarters at Kolasib.
In the absence of any written or any other form of authentic records, as is the case of all other districts of Mizoram nothing is authentically known about the ancient or medieval ages of the history of the place. Written or authentic records were kept only after the State/District came under the occupation of the British rulers in the 2nd half of nineteenth century. It can however be stated that during last 4 centuries and even after the occupation of this area by the British Administrators, the systems of Chieftainship was wide spread in the region. Accordingly one such chief named Kawla was ruling the village now known as Kolasib. As such whenever this village was referred to, “Kawla Chief Village” was most popularly mentioned. Thus from Kawla Chief the name Kolasib was given by the Britishers and till date there has not been change of this name.
Administrative set up
Kolasib District is situated on the northern tip of Mizoram. The district has been carved out of the then Aizawl district in the year 1998 vide Government of Mizoram Notification No. A.60011/21/95-GAD dated 29th July 1998. Prior to this upgradation, it was a Sub-division under Kolasib Sadar Sub-division with Headquarters at Kolasib, there are two other sub-divisions in the district. These are Kawnpui Civil Sub-division and Vairengte Civil Sub-division. Till the end of the year 2001 Kawnpui Civil Sub-division was not functional. So far as Rural Development Blocks are concerned, the whole area of the Kolasib District is covered by Thingdawl and Tlangnuam (Part) R.D Block. The Deputy Commissioner of the district is the seniormost Civil Officer who is assisted by the Superintendent of Police and various other district and R.D Block level Officers in running the day to day administration and development activities within the district.
Location and size :
The geographical location of Kolasib District is between 92¯ 30’and 92¯ 45’East Longitude and 24¯ and 24¯ 15’North Latitude. The average height of the district is 722 mtrs. (2,370 ft.) above mean sea level. The district covers an area of 1,382 Sq. Kms. The district is flanked by Hailakandi and Cachar Districts of Assam in the north, Aizawl District in the south and east and Mamit District in the west. The North-South extension of the district is 81.6 km and East-West extension is 56 km.
The district is situated in a part of Aizawl Mountainous Region of Eastern Hill Zones. The topography of the district is rugged having steep hill slopes and the comparatively low hill ranges run in the North-South direction intercepted by narrow strips of plain and as already mentioned elsewhere the average height of the district is 722 mtrs. (2,370 ft.). Kolasib district has one completed Hydro Electric Dam, Serlui B. Dam and one under construction Tuirial Dam construction recommended in September 2011.
The topography in general is undulating with broken mountainous/hilly ranges and between them, there are narrow valleys lands suitable for cultivation of field crops. The hills are suited for Horticultural practices wherever the slopes are gentle/moderate. The soils in hills are rich in humus due to forest cover. However, in abandoned jhum lands the situation is reverse. The soil in general is acidic-pH ranging between 4.5 – 6, deficient in base material, medium in organic carbon, low in available phosphorus and high in potash. The predominant soil taxonomy is Hapladults and Udonthernts wherein moisture retention capacity is very low.
The forest cover type of Kolasib district is mainly tropical wet evergreen forest and tropical semi evergreen forest associated with moist deciduous forests. Moist deciduous forests are commonly found in small pockets on the hill slopes. The vegetation consists of a mixture of several species. Depending on the density of the canopy cover the forest have been divided into dense/closed, medium dense and less dense forest.
Drainage System :
Kolasib district is drained by a few rivers and a good number of streams and rivulets of various patterns and length. Most of these streams and rivulets are ephemeral in nature. Since the drainage system for a particular area is governed mainly by natural drainage course and topography, therefore, the drainage system of Kolasib district has been studied with the help of satellite imageries and the Survey of India topographical maps.
Kolasib district is located in the northern part of Mizoram state and enjoys a moderate climate owing to its tropical location. It is neither very not nor too cold throughout the year. It falls under the direct influence of the south west monsoon which receives an adequate amount of rainfall during the monsoon season. The average rainfall of Kolasib district is 2703 mm per annum and highest rainfall during a particular month was 852 mm recorded during August and July. The salient thermoscharacteristics of the district is that temperature do not fluctuate much throughout the year. The highest temperature observed during past decades was 35¯c in the month of July. The warmest months with mean daily maximum at about 25¯c and mean daily minimum at about 23¯c was observed during June and July. The temperature normally falls down from the month of November and is at its lowest in December and January.